DTS

Grammar Season

Future tenses Episode

„5 billion people will die from a deadly virus in 1997…”

– 12 monkeys

 

            
In a future world devastated by disease, James Cole, a convict “volunteer” is sent back in time to gather information about the man-made virus that has killed 99% of the human population on the planet.
Cole ends up in 1990 by accident, and he finds himself locked-up in a bedlam because he states that 5 billion people are going to die in 1997.  In the hospital, he meets with Jeffrey who is definitely a weirdo but he promises that he’ll help him escape. His escaping attempt doesn’t succeed and they lock him in an isolation room. When Kathryn -his psychiatrist- and the other doctors enter the room to check on Cole, they find an empty place… 
A second miscalculation sends him to the battlefields of World War I, where he got shot and then suddenly we are in 1996. Cole kidnaps Kathryn and he tries to convince her that everyone is going to die, but she doesn’t believe him. She tells him that this is only a delusion, nobody is going to die and he is not gonna save the world.
While they are heading to Philadelphia to locate the ‘army of the 12 monkeys’, Kathryn tries to convince Cole to turn himself in to the police, otherwise they’re going to kill him.  She says that in a few weeks, the epidemic will have broken out or it won’t. If there are still baseball games and boring TV shows – they’ll be glad to turn themselves in to the police. She also asks him “what will you do when you find this secret army?” 
Cole tells her that she won’t think he’s crazy next month. People are gonna start dying. At first, the papers will say it’s some weird fever, some virus. Then they’ll begin to catch on. They’ll get it.
When Katheryn finds Cole in a World War I photograph, she becomes convinced that the ‘12 Monkeys’ indeed poses a threat. She promises that she’ll stay with him and she won’t let them hurt him.
Later they realize that the “army” is not dangerous, and Cole leaves a message that he is not going BACK ← to the FUTURE. While they are trying to flee from the police at the airport, Cole’s recurring dream from his childhood is about to become reality

 

 

GRAMMAR

Future simple

HOW?

 

Positive:

Subject + will + verb

He will help him escape.
She’ll stay with him.

Negative:

Subject + will + not (=won’t) + verb

She won’t think he’s crazy.
She won’t let them hurt him.

Question:

(Question word – if there is one) + will + subject + verb?

What will you do when you find this secret army?
Will you think I’m crazy?

 

WHEN?

Will or going to?

 

We use ‘will’ for:

A decision at the moment of speaking:

  • Stop or I’ll shoot!
  • A: Shall I put this on your account, Ma’am?
    B: No, I’ll pay in cash.

 

Prediction based on opinion:

  • (checks her watch) – I’ll be there in twenty minutes.

 

A future fact:

  • 5 billion people will die from a deadly virus in 1997. (Said in 1990 by someone from the future.)


Promises, requests, refusal, willingness:

  • For five thousand dollars I’ll give him the Deluxe Mental Hospital Tour.
  • She’ll stay with him and she won’t let them hurt him.
  • He promises that he’ll help him escape.


In the same way as the future continuous but with stative verbs:

  • I will be at the airport when you arrive.


As part of the
first conditional*:

  • If there are still baseball games and boring TV shows – they’ll be glad to turn themselves in to the police.

* I will cover the conditionals in a later episode.

 

We use ‘be going to’ + infinitive for:

Future plans made BEFORE the moment of speaking:

  • I am going to help you.
  • What are you going to do with us?

 

Prediction based on present evidence/ when we want to emphasize our decision or the evidence in the present:

  • Cole realizes that his recurring dream from his childhood is soon going to become reality.
  • She tells him that this is only a delusion, nobody is going to die and he is not going to save the world.
  • (There is lightning and thunder) – It’s going to rain!

 


Future Continuous

HOW

 

Positive:

Subject + will + be + verb-ing

At 2 pm tomorrow they will be travelling to Philadelphia.
She’ll be waiting for him at the gift shop.

Negative:

Subject + will + not (=won’t) + be + verb-ing

At 2 pm tomorrow they won’t be travelling to Los Angeles.
She won’t be waiting for him at the café.

Question:

(Question word – if there is one) + will + subject + be + verb-ing?

When will they be travelling to Philadelphia?
Will she be waiting for him at the gift shop?

 

WHEN?

 

We use the future continuous to refer to temporary actions and events that will be in progress at a particular time in the future:

  • At 2 pm tomorrow they will be travelling to Philadelphia.

Overlapping actions in the future (as the same way as we use past continuous tense for the past):

  • She’ll be waiting for the plane when he arrives.

 

A complete action in the future that will happen in the normal course of events:

  • This time next week, the virus will be spreading all over the world.

 

To make a guess about the present*:

  • Jeffrey will be sleeping now. (= I think she is sleeping now, but I’m not completely certain).

 

* I’ll cover the modals of certainty later.

 

 

Future Perfect

HOW?

 

Positive:

Subject + will + have + past participle

She says that in a few weeks, the epidemic will have broken out…

Negative:

Subject + will + not (=won’t) + have + past participle

…. or it won’t have broken out.

Question:

(Question word – if there is one) + will + subject + have + past participle?

When will the epidemic have broken out?
Will the epidemic have broken out by next week?

 

 

WHEN?

 

Events finished by a certain time in the future. The future perfect tense in English isn’t very common, but it is useful in some situations, and it’s very important to understand it when you hear it.

We use the future perfect form when we look back to the past from a point in the future. We usually use a time phrase, for example by tomorrow, for three years:

With a future time word, (and often with ‘by’) to talk about an action that will finish before a certain time in the future, but we don’t know exactly when:

  • By 5 pm tomorrow they will have arrived to Philadelphi (= they will arrive to Philadelphia some time before 5 pm, but we don’t know exactly when.)

With stative verbs:

  • By next week everyone will have heard about the virus.
  • Next month James and Kathryn will have known each other for 6 years.

 

 

Future perfect continuous

HOW?

 

Positive:

Subject + will + have + been + verb-ing

In 1998, the epidemic will have been spreading for 2 years.

Negative:

Subject + will + not (=won’t) + have + been + verb-ing

In 1998, the epidemic won’t have been spreading for 3 years.

Question:

(Question word – if there is one) + will + subject + have + been + verb-ing?

When will the epidemic have been spreading for 2 years?
Will the epidemic have been spreading for 2 years in 1998?

 

 

WHEN?

 

This is probably the least used tense in English and it is a little complicated to make. However it’s great to understand it.

We use the future perfect continuous form when we are looking back to the past from a point in the future and we want to emphasize the length or duration of an activity or event:

  • In 1998, the epidemic will have been spreading for 2 years.
  • Next month, Kathryn will have been working in the mental hospital for 10 years.

 

Other uses of the future tense

 

Future in the past:

Future in the past is used to express the idea that in the past you thought something would happen in the future. It does not matter if it’s true or not. It follows the same basic rules as the simple future. “Would” replaces will and “was going to” replaces am/is/are going to (see: will or going to above!)

  • „He claimed he had come from the future that he was looking for a pure germ that would ultimately wipe mankind off the face of the earth in the year… 1995!”
  • „You were going to run out of gas on purpose, weren’t you?”

 

Present simple for the future:

We use the present simple for a timetabled event in the future:

  • The next flight to San Francisco leaves from Gate 38.

We use it after certain words, when the sentence has a future meaning. These words are: before / after / as soon as / until / when:

  • I’ll call you when I get to the airport.

+ When we make an immediate decision, we use -’ll not will or shall or the simple present tense:

Wait a minute, I’ll lend you my car.

Not: I shall lend you my car. or … I lend you my car.

 

Present continuous for the future:

We use the present continuous tense for definite future arrangements. Often, it doesn’t really matter if we choose ‘be going to’ or the present continuous. In the following example, there is really very little difference in meaning:

  • “Cole leaves a phone message to the „scientists” that he is not going back to the future.”
  • Cole leaves a phone message to the „scientists” that he is not gonna go back to the future.

 

+ We don’t use the present continuous when we predict something:

You’re going to fail the exam unless you attend more classes.

Not: You’re failing the exam, unless

Be about to:

We use be about to + base form of the verb to refer to things that we expect to happen very soon (we often use it with just, for emphasis):

  • Cole’s recurring dream from his childhood is about to become reality…

 

THINGS TO NOTICE

 

-’ll:

Will and shall are modal verbs; the short form –‘ll is very common, and is almost always used when speaking. It’s really much more natural to say ‘I’ll’ instead of ‘I will’.

‘Shall’ is used mainly in the forms ‘shall I ?’ and ‘shall we?’ in British English and is more formal than will. These forms are used when you want to get someone’s opinion, especially for offers and suggestions:

  • “Shall I put this on your account madam?” (=do you want me to put it on your account?).

 

‘Gonna’ vs. ‘gotta’:

Gonna = be going to:

  • “People are gonna start dying.” (People are going to start dying)

Gotta = have got to (Have (got) to is used to refer to obligations which come from outside the speaker):

  • „I gotta find ’em. Please, you gotta help me!”
    (I have got to find them. Please, you have got to help me!)

 

Papers…

Like many things, “paper” is sometimes countable and sometimes uncountable.

Normally it’s uncountable because it’s a material, and materials are usually uncountable, but often “a paper” can mean a written composition, an official document or a newspaper. When used in those senses, it’s countable:

  • “…the papers will say it’s some weird fever, some virus.”

 

VOCABULARY, PHRASES, COLLOCATIONS, IDIOMS, PHRASAL VERBS

 

End up:
(phrasal verb) To finally be in a particular place or situation.

By accident:
(phrase) Without intending to, or without being intended.

Lock somebody up:
(phrasal verb) To put someone in a prison or a hospital for people who are mentally ill.

Weirdo:
A person who behaves strangely.

Check on:
(phrasal verb) To look at someone or something in order to make sure that they are safe, correct, etc.

Delusion:
Belief in something that is not true.

Turn somebody in:
(phrasal verb) To take a criminal to the police, or to go to them yourself to admit a crime.

Epidemic:
The appearance of a particular disease in a large number of people at the same time.

Brake out:
(phrasal verb) If something dangerous or unpleasant breaks out, it suddenly starts.

At first:
(preposition collocation) In or at the beginning.

Catch on:
(phrasal verb) To understand, especially after a long time.

Get it:
To understand or comprehend something.

Poses a threat:
(collocation) To cause threat.

Flee from someone or something:
(phrasal verb) To run away from someone or something.

 

EXERCISES

 

 

Make the future simple (will), positive, negative or question

 

If the fabric is torn or a zipper not closed, re-admittance _______________ (be) denied.

What______________ (you/do) when you find this secret army?

Jeffrey promises that he____________ (help) him escape.

Kathryn_____________ (not/think) that James is crazy next month.

At first the papers_______________ (say) it's some weird fever.

She________________ (not/let) them hurt him.

Of course you want to be well, James. And you____________ (be) soon.

It _____________ (not/work). You can't open it.

I___________________ (never/have to) live underground.

___________________ (you/give) him the Deluxe Mental Hospital Tour for 5000 dollars?

 

 

Make the future continuous

 

At 2 pm tomorrow they __________________ (travel) to Philadelphia.

She ___________________ (wait) at the gift shop.

This time next week, the virus ___________________ (spread) all over the world.

When he arrives, she__________________ (not/cry).

When the scientists come, _______________________ (James/lie) in the bed?

 

 

Will or be going to?

 

(The phone rings) – I____________________ (get) it!

Kathryn promises James that she_______________ (not/let) the police hurt him.

- Why are you carrying a gun? - I_______________ (kill) the guy who has the virus.

- Why are you turning on the tv? - I_________________ (watch) the news.

- Kathryn, I need somebody to take me to the airport tomorrow morning. - That's no problem__________________ (I/take) you.

 

 

Make the future perfect

 

By 8 pm tonight they ______________ (leave) Philadelphia.

By 8 pm tonight James ____________________ (not/finish) the report.

In a few weeks, the epidemic_________________ (brake out).

“Call the scientists after 6 o’clock, you _____________________ (gather) all necessary information by then.”

______________________ (she/arrive) by ten o’clock?

 

 

Short vocabulary

 

Which one of the following phrasal verbs means: To take a criminal to the police?

Which word means: 'belief in something that is not true'?

Who is a weirdo?

............. a threat

'End up' means: